The column was erected in Piazza Santa Felicita in 1381; according to some authors, it was supposed to celebrate the victory, reported in 1244, by the Cavalieri di Santa Maria, led by Pietro da Verona (then San Pietro martyr), over the Cathar heretics; according to other sources, instead, its origin is linked to a mausoleum that stood in the square already in the V century A.D. The column was initially surmounted by a cross with two palm trees on the sides but, in 1484, these elements were removed and a capital was placed on the stem with a Glazed Terracotta statue, depicting San Pietro martyr. The expenses were borne by the de’ Rossi family who was particularly devoted to the saint. The statue fell down in 1732 and broke; it was later replaced with another statue made of stone by Antonio Montauti. Following the mines placed by the German army, in 1944 the column collapsed and it was necessary to restore it, as is testified by the three iron hoops present on the stem. Currently the column appears crowned by a corinthian capital on which is placed the ancient base of the column together with four shields, bearing the coat of arms of the de’ Rossi family, interspersed with acanthus leaves.
The column is positioned on a large circular base in Pietra Serena Sandstone; the stem is made of oriental grey Granite and displays a corinthian capital made of Pietra Serena Sandstone.